AMERICA THE BEAUTIFUL?

“Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed, to me:
I lift my lamp beside the golden door.”

THE WORDS HAVE A HOLLOW RING TODAY as the world views the horrific photograph of a little girl not yet 2, clutching her father, Oscar Alberto Martinez Ramirez, as both were swept to their deaths in the Rio Grande in an effort to seek asylum. Their mother Tania Vanessa Avalos, 21 watched as they drowned. The family  made their way to Mexico from El Salvadore, then spent the last two months in a migrant camp waiting for an appointment to apply for asylum to enter the US. A shelter director said that only 40 to 45 asylum interviews were being conducted there each week while there are 800 to 1,700 names on the waiting list. Ramirez became frustrated by the delay and decided to attempt to swim across the river. He deposited his daughter on the far bank and went back to assist his wife to cross but the child became confused and followed her father back into the water. Both drowned in the strong undercurrents as he tried to save her.

Desperate migrants continue to heed that call to ‘enter the golden door’ only to end up incarcerated in camps or turned around. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)  is unable to process the thousands fleeing violence and economic hardship, many from Latin American countries affected by gang violence and poverty. The number of children separated from their families and held in camps at the end of 2018 was estimated at 15,000, the accurate figure today is unknown with many of the children unaccounted for.

The US government went to federal court this week to argue that it is not required to give detained migrant children toothbrushes, soap, towels, showers or an opportunity to sleep inside Border Patrol detention facilities. Government lawyers described the temporary detention facilities as “safe and sanitary” despite the deaths of at least six child migrants  since September, mostly after falling ill at detention facilities in the Rio Grande Valley.  Last month, in the largest temporary detention center in McAllen, Tex., CBP had to quarantine 32 migrants who were diagnosed with the flu, soon after a 16-year-old boy from Guatemala died. He had been diagnosed with the flu at the same overcrowded facility where dozens of migrants are held behind chain-link fences in pens, sleeping on mats on the concrete floor with aluminium foil blankets. The children complain they are unable to sleep because lights are kept on at all time.

IS AMERICA IN DENIAL? WHAT CONTRIBUTED TO THE MORAL AND SOCIAL DECLINE – COULD IT BE GREED – A RELUCTANCE TO SHARE?

Today more than 1 in 8 Americans are immigrants and almost all are descended from immigrants. Less than 2% of the population have Native American ancestors. Life expectancy in the US ranks 39th in the world at 79.5 but has been falling for the past three years due to rising suicide figures not seen since WW2.
CDC: US Suicide Rates Highest Since WWII, Native Americans Most Affected | Newsmax.com  Although the US has the largest economy in the world it does not have the highest GDP per capita, ranking 19th behind small countries like Luxembourg.  In the most recent World Happiness Report the US ranks 15th out of 30 countries scored. For the Ramirez parents and hundreds of thousands like them it still outranks the horrors of their homeland. 

 

Animated Map Shows History Of Immigration To The US- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fe79i1mu-mc

 

JERUSALEM: A Pocket History for Trump

GOLAN HEIGHTS SETTLEMENT TO BECOME ‘TRUMP HEIGHTS’

The announcement by Benjamin Netanyahu that an illegal settlement in the  Golan Heights is to be renamed ‘TRUMP HEIGHTS’ provides a timely reminder of the strategy behind the unseemly Trump –  Netanyahu alliance and their open contempt for a just settlement of Palestinian rights. Israel seized the Golan Heights from Syria in the closing stages of the 1967 Six-Day War.  Israel continues to flout the UN directive which forbids the building of settlements in what is internationally regarded as occupied territory.  Syria wants a full Israeli withdrawal to the pre-1967 border, this would give Damascus control of the eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee which provides Israel’s main source of fresh water through the now occupied territory. This  latest move follows the audacious decision in March by President Trump to relocate the American Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem,  changing the disputed status of Jerusalem without consultation and in the face of complete opposition from world leaders. Such a move suggests either a degree of ineptness or a callous disregard for the deepest feelings of those concerned. King Abdullah of Jordan, currently Custodian of the Holy Sites in Jerusalem, warned of the potential dangerous repercussions. 

HISTORY OF JERUSALEM

 Whatever our faith we tend to view Jerusalem from our own  perspective. While  sacred to Jews, Muslims and Christians, the site is however much older than any of these religious traditions, artefacts show  it was first settled between 4,500–3,500 BCE. The original inhabitants of Jerusalem were Phoenician Canaanites, their culture is believed to have pioneered the Mediterranean system of agriculture, intensive horticulture, grain growing and commercial olive cultivation. Old Testament scripture states that the land is named after Canaan, a son of Ham, son of Noah, the ancestor of the Canaanite people. The Canaanites of the southern Levante worshipped a panoply of gods; the first known mention of the city of Jerusalem was in c. 2,000 BCE.

PHILISTIA  (present day Gaza on the Mediterranean coast of Israel) was the name of a region between Egypt and Canaan believed to be founded  c 2,100BC.  The Old Testament states that the inhabitants were Philistines. In Hebrew, Philistine literally means ‘of  Palestine’ (Phillistia). The name Jerusalem is of Canaanite origin, meaning “Founded by Shalem”: Originally ‘Urushalim’ or ‘Urushalem’ the prefix uru means ‘founded by’, and the suffix salem or Shalem refers to the Canaanite ‘god of dusk, of the setting sun and of health and perfection’. The Sumero-Akkadian name for Jerusalem (1330 BCE) uru-salim, means “foundation of [or by] the god ‘Shalim‘ from Hebrew/Semitic meaning ‘to found, to lay a cornerstone’.

Though not a part of Canaan and never conquered by the Israelites, Phillistia was in the area promised to the Israelites by their God. The two nations were initially on peaceful terms but eventually warred for centuries. Goliath the giant was the Philistine from Gath, who was killed by David  the shepherd boy (later King of Israel) with a slingshot stone. Under the later Roman occupation of Judea, Phillistia was renamed Palaestina,  the name Palestine and the Arab word Filistin originate from the Romanised Palaestina

According to the Old Testament  Abraham, the patriarch of Judaism, was born  in 1,813 BCE, he was a native of Ur of the Chaldeans, in Mesopotamia, now south eastern Iraq. He was led by God to settle in Haran. The Torah traces his  lineage through his grandson Jacob and through his twelve sons who became the ancestors of the twelve tribes of Israel. The name Israel comes from the renaming of Jacob following a heroic struggle when he wrestled with an angel. The Hebrew bible states the name is derived from ‘yisra’ meaning ‘to prevail over’ and ‘el ‘referring to ‘God, the divine’.

Following a famine Jacob’s descendants, the Hebrews, migrated to Egypt and under the patronage of Joseph, Jacob’s son, established a thriving community, which in time became viewed as a threat to the indigenous population. After Joseph’s death they were enslaved in Egypt for 400 years until Moses led them to freedom. The Hebrews were directed through the Sinai Peninsula to Canaan, the ‘land flowing with milk and honey’  promised  to them by their God. Canaan had an indigenous population of both settled and nomadic groups; the  Israelites were commanded  by their god to conquer Canaan. The  conquest occurred under Joshua in c.1,406BC. The  Book of Joshua states that Canaanites are included in a list of nations to exterminate and later described as a group which the Israelites had annihilated. Today this has been equated with genocide.

According to the Bible, the Israelite history of the city of Jerusalem began c.1,000 BCE, when the city of David was sacked by King David who later united the 12 tribes of Israel. Solomon, his son, built the Temple of Jerusalem, however following his death, the kingdom was split into two parts, 10 tribes of Israel and 2 of Judah.  The Jewish people were  exiled in the Assyrian conquest (740 BCE)  and in the Babylonian conquest (587/6 BCE) . After the Fall of Babylon  to the Persians, King Cyrus the Great allowed the descendants of the  tribes of the Kingdom of Judah  to return to Israel. The 10 tribes who never returned are referred to as ‘the Ten lost tribes of Israel’ who were  scattered globally in the diaspora.

Recent History:

ZIONISM IS NOT A RELIGIOUS TERM. IT DEFINES THE POLITICAL MOVEMENT COINED IN 1890 TO PROMOTE THE RETURN OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE TO PALESTINE AND THE RESUMPTION OF JEWISH SOVEREIGNTY IN THE LAND OF ISRAEL. THE NAME COMES FROM THE HILL OF ZION ON WHICH THE TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM WAS BUILT.

In 1917 in response to  the  Zionist political movement, Great Britain recognized the rights of the Jewish people to establish a “national homeland for the people of Palestine”.  In 1947 the UN voted for the Partition of Palestine, in 1948 Britain withdrew when their  Mandate for Palestine as a Protectorate ended. The  Zionist movement immediately declared a State of Israel in Palestine, triggering the Arab invasion and later the Arab/Israeli war and the eventual  Israeli occupation of Palestinian territories. Since that time, Palestinians have been dispossessed of their rights and remain stateless. The restoration of East Jerusalem as the Palestinian capital has been an inherent part of endless Peace negotiations for a two State solution until the recent declaration by President Trump.

Post script: Palestinians are now seeking a non partisan peace broker to replace the US in negotiations.

(First published December 13 2017)

(Note:Previous blog: Errata/Tribes of Israel corrected)

DIVIDE AND CONQUER – A STRATEGY

THE POLITICAL SPLIT NOW REPEATEDLY DEMONSTRATED IN ELECTION RESULTS , REFERENDUMS AND OPINION POLLS  IS A GLOBAL PHENOMENON, A FURTHER EXAMPLE OF THE DUALITY OF CONSCIOUSNESS  IN THE CURRENT TRANSITION TOWARDS UNITY OR CHAOS.

 A SPIRITUAL CHALLENGE:  When viewed in terms of consciousness, this manifests in  a lack of spiritual cohesiveness, marked by moral and ethical decline. Such markers in Time provide a wake up call,  a warning to humanity to return to observance of the governing cosmic law in order to avoid inevitable consequence. Cosmologists acknowledge  the geophysical division and fragmentation which takes place at the end of cosmic cycles, now manifesting as climate change.  Sociologists  and mental health care practitioners recognise the psychological trauma  and breakdown often associated with change and uncertainty which precedes any regenerative phase of renewal. Today political guru’s are confounded by the dynamic changes in which outcome cannot be predicted.

UNITY OR DIVISION:   The outcome of the current Israeli election is one more demonstration of division and fragmentation, a split in the national psyche.  With 95% of the vote counted, results show a tie, with the two major parties evenly split at 56 seats, the Likud Party led by Prime Minister Netanyahu is behind  by one seat.  Neither side has the 61 votes necessary to form a governing coalition in the 120-seat Knesset.

 

The UK Brexit vote on whether to leave the EU, split the nation and led to an unresolved constitutional crisis.

  •  In the UK 51.9% voted LEAVE and 48.1% REMAIN.
  • With the exception of Scotland and London the results of the remaining 11 regions eligible to vote illustrated an average split of 10%.
  • Northern Ireland voted  55.8%  NO  to 44.2% YES.
  • Wales voted 47.5% NO  to 52.5% YES.
  • In the Scottish referendum which debated Independence from Britain,  55.3% voted against independence with  44.7% voting in favour, the later Brexit crisis  influencing any potential second referendum.

Continue reading

JUST GEOGRAPHY!

To begin to understand what is meant by Peace we must understand what is meant by War. Defense is the usual cloak worn to justify attack.

Wars are driven by conquest and plunder.

Resources are essential to the survival of empires,

Military might is essential to achieve access and occupation.

The invasion of Afghanistan presented as a war directed against the Taliban and Al Qaeda, to eliminate “Islamic terrorism” is now acknowledged as  a war of plunder to control resources. The objective – to sustain a geopolitical foothold in Central Asia and install western style ‘democracy’.Map_of_Central_AsiaStanding at the crossroads of pipeline routes and major oil and gas reserves, Afghanistan is a land bridge bordering on the former Soviet Union, China and Iran, it is acknowledged as a strategic hub in Central Asia, The invasion was a means to secure control  over the strategic trans-Afghan transport corridor which links the Caspian sea basin to the Arabian sea.

Adjacent Turkmenistan possesses the third largest natural gas reserves after Russia and Iran.Trans-Afghan oil and gas pipeline projects already contemplated include the $8.0 billion pipeline project which would transport Turkmenistan natural gas across Afghanistan, described as a “crucial transit corridor”. Just as the Iraqi war was about oil, the Afghan war is about control of oil and gas; Afghanistan is adjacent to countries which are rich in both.

In June 2010 The Pentagon  announcement of the vast scale of Afghanistan’s mineral wealth went largely unnoticed by the general public. The statement that this was  ‘recently discovered by a small team of Pentagon officials and American geologists’ is however refuted by the pre existing geological surveys conducted by the Soviet Union in the 1970s and early 1980s. These confirm prior knowledge by the  US  of the existence of not only huge untapped gas reserves but vast reserves of copper iron, high grade chrome ore, uranium, beryl, barite, lead, zinc, fluorspar, bauxite, lithium, tantalum, emeralds, gold and silver (Afghanistan, Mining Annual Review, The Mining Journal,  June, 1984).

emeralds

132043-850x563r1-pile-of-rubiesTo the east of Kabul vast deposits of Rubies, beryllium, emeralds, kunzite’s and gems that cannot be found anywhere else –stretch for hundreds of kilometres.

imagesAfghanistan is a cornucopia of the minerals essential to modern industry including huge veins of iron, copper, cobalt and gold as well as rocks containing the rare metals beryllium, thorium, lithium and tantalum used in the air and spacecraft industries.

What has your mobile phone to do with the war in Afghanistan? “Lithium, an increasingly vital resource, is used in batteries for everything from mobile phones to laptops and BlackBerries and is key to the future of the electric car.” At present Chile, Australia, China and Argentina are the main suppliers of lithium to the world market with Bolivia and Chile the countries with the largest known reserves of lithium. The Pentagon confirm that lithium deposits in Afghanistan showed the potential to be as large as those of Bolivia”

The Geopolitical Game Plan: As multi national mining conglomerates fight to achieve a foothold in the new race for supremacy, deals are being done. China’s National Petroleum Corporation, in partnership with a company controlled by relatives of President Karzai, is now pumping oil from the Amu Darya field in the north. The investment consortium arranged by JPMorgan Chase is mining gold while another Chinese company is trying to develop a huge copper mine. Meanwhile Copper and gold contracts are being tendered with others pending…..

For now the trillion-dollar reservoir of natural resources remains embedded in the soil for which so many have fought and died, sadly not for the cause they believed. We can be assured that the competitive interests of Russia, Iran and China will be met by those of the US and the members of the Nato Alliance.

See also:

Regime change and Democracy

Sounds like a Plan

WAS IT ABOUT OIL?

 In a CNN interview of October 2015 former British Prime Minister Tony Blair angered many when he made a token acknowledgment of his ‘mistakes’ over the Iraq War admitting there were ‘elements of truth’ to the view that the invasion helped promote the rise of ISL as a global terrorist group.

Hans Blix who headed the U.N. inspections in Iraq at the time of the war 220px-Hans_Blix_in_Vienna_2002 has said in his memoirs. “Today, I look again at the reasons why this terrible mistake — and violation of the U.N. charter — took place and explore if any lessons be drawn –

  • The war aimed to eliminate weapons of mass destruction, but there weren’t any.
  • The war aimed to eliminate Al Qaeda in Iraq, but the terrorist group didn’t exist in the country until after the invasion.
  • The war aimed to make Iraq a model democracy based on law, but it replaced tyranny with anarchy and led America to practices that violated the laws of war.
  • The war aimed to transform Iraq to a friendly base for U.S. troops capable to act, if needed, against Iran — but instead it gave Iran a new ally in Baghdad

So was it about Oil?  Iraq has the second largest proven oil reserves in the world; the domestic oil industry was fully nationalised and closed to Western oil companies in 1972 and the   four major oil companies based in the US and the UK were excluded from contracts. Following the invasion in 2003 and  a decade of war,  the industry was largely privatised and completely dominated by foreign firms. Iraq’s oil production increased by more than 40% over five years to 3 million barrels of oil a day but 80% of this was exported out of the country while Iraqis struggled to meet basic energy consumption needs. Basic services such as water and electricity remained luxuries, with a quarter of the population living in poverty.

Quotes

 “Of course it’s about oil; we can’t really deny that,” Gen. John Abizaid, Head of U.S. Central Command and Military Operations in Iraq, in 2007.,

“I am saddened that it is politically inconvenient to acknowledge what everyone knows: the Iraq war is largely about oil.”  Former Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan

People say we’re not fighting for oil. Of course we are.” Former Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel 2007

Was it attempted genocide? In a paper for the Association of Genocide Scholars at the University of Manitoba, Professor Nagi of the School of Business at George Washington University cited a secret US Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA) document which he said amounted to “an early blueprint for genocide against the people of Iraq”. The DIA document revealed minute details of a fully workable method to ‘fully degrade the water treatment system’ of an entire nation” over a period of a decade. The sanctions policy would create “the conditions for widespread disease, including full scale epidemics,” thus “liquidating a significant portion of the population of Iraq”.

“Axis of Evil”… bush-cheney-rumsfeldGeneral Wesley Clark the former Supreme NATO Allied Commander and Joint Chiefs of Staff Director of Strategy and Policy, describes ((2003 – Winning Modern Wars) his conversation with a military officer in the Pentagon shortly after the 11 September attacks, regarding a plan to attack seven Middle Eastern countries in five years: “As I went back through the Pentagon in November 2001, one of the senior military staff officers had time for a chat. Yes, we were still on track for going against Iraq, he said. But there was more. This was being discussed as part of a five-year campaign plan, he said, and there were a total of seven countries, beginning with Iraq, then Syria, Lebanon, Libya, Iran, Somalia and Sudan. ,,,,,,,,  Deja vu!

See also:

Regime change and Democracy 

Just Geography!

 

 

KOREA – Unstoppable Force meets Immovable Object

As the world watches and waits to see what strategy the American President will adopt in response to Kim Jung Il’s latest missile launch, we might pause to consider a 3rd century philosophical treatise which describes the challenge.,“A man was trying to sell a spear and a shield; asked how good his spear was, he said that his spear could pierce any shield. Then, when asked how good his shield was, he said that it could defend from all spear attacks. Then one person asked him what would happen if he were to take his spear to strike his shield; the seller could not answer.”        

The words of a Chinese general and military strategist come down to us from the 6th century: Sun Tzu 孫子 (c 6th century BCE) authored The Art of War, an immensely influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy. His advice regarding military decision making:

                                               “First know your enemy”

Korea has suffered repeated invasion and occupation over the centuries, North Korea views American intentions as hostile and latest polls suggest that 94% of Americans view North Korea as a threat.. A glance at the history of the people  may assist us in gaining a better understanding of the ‘ paranoia’ which is often levelled at the country.

History: The Old kingdom was founded in northern Korea and Manchuria in 2333 BC. In 108BC The Han empire of China conquered the northern part of the Korean peninsula administering it for almost 400 years. South and central Korea were governed by the Gorveo Kingdom until its fall when the Korean peninsula became a united territory under the Josean dynasty which ruled over the region for more than 500 years, from 1392. In the subsequent colonial era wealthy and powerful nations extended control and influence over weaker nations using terms such as ‘protectorate’ and ‘sphere of influence’. Korea became a ‘protectorate’ of China with continuing conflict between China and Japan to gain power and influence over the peninsula.

1894 Korea was a ‘protectorate’ of China when Japan forced the Chinese to sign a humiliating peace treaty which ostensibly gave Korea ‘full and complete independence and autonomy’. In fact this was a ploy, enabling Japan to gain a foothold on the peninsula, providing access to a supply of rich raw materials.

1905 Korea was forced to sign a ‘protectorate’ treaty’ with Japan designed to open up Korean ports to Japanese trade. Japanese citizens were granted territorial rights and the Japanese forced the abdication of the Emperor of Korea, replacing him with his son as a puppet.1910 Japan annexed Korea exploiting the Korean people throughout the brutal occupation. 1911 Cultural erosion: An Imperial Decree forced Koreans to surrender their family names and adopt Japanese names, the Korean language was prohibited. 1932 Land Dispossession: Korean land owners, unable to provide the documentation to prove ownership lost their land to Japanese settlers. Dispossessed Koreans were forced to become tenants and made to pay over half their crops as rent, this resulted in many Korean women being forced into factories or prostitution to pay taxes.

1945 Korea was liberated from Japanese occupation when Russia invaded and occupied North Korea and American forces moved into the south. The country was temporarily administered by the joint trusteeship of Russia and the US as allies, the intention being to grant independence after 5 years. As a result of the subsequent Cold War between Russia and America administration became contentious and the country was split into two parts to be administered separately.

1948 The two regions were divided at the 38th parallel, each with its own government. Both claimed to be the legitimate government and neither accepted the border as permanent.

 Kim Il Sung became the leader of North Korea from the division of the country, North Korea became a workers state with close alliance to the Soviet Union. South Korea was aligned to the US. 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea with the support of Stalin, the objective being unification, this is referred to by North Korea as the ‘Fatherland Liberation War’. A UN force came to the aid of South Korea, 88% of the military being American. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign and China came to its defense with Russia providing ariel support. In China the war is called ‘The War to resist US aggression and aid Korea’.

1953 An Armistice ended the fighting but no peace treaty was ever signed, the two countries remain technically at war with the 38th parallel the boundary.1960s North Korea, supported by the USSR enjoyed a higher standard of living than South Korea, 1980s due to Japanese and American investment the economy of South Korea flourished. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in a loss of economic aid, adversely affecting the economy of North Korea. Since that time China has been North Korea’s only major ally.

2017 All attempts to impose economic sanctions to stop North Korea acquiring nuclear weapons have so far failed. North Korea insists that a nuclear defense system is essential in view of America’s perceived hostile stance, the 35,000 US personnel stationed in South Korea and the tens of thousands of American troops deployed in bases in Japan, Guam and the Philippines.

The most successful Commanders in history have been forced to choose between governing options.  Accommodate  – Negotiate – Withdraw – Attack

In the words of President Trump:  ‘All options are on the table’

His latest statement being:  ‘Talking is not the answer’

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reaping what we Sow

Some 30,000 years ago, the Paleo-Indians, the ancestors of Native Americans, followed herds of animals from Siberia across Beringia, a land bridge connecting Asia and North America, into Alaska. By 8,000 B.C.E., these peoples had spread across North and South America. The tribal peoples were diverse but all Indians lived in organized societies with political structures, moral codes, and religious beliefs. The idea of private land ownership was foreign; all land was held communally and worked collectively. Most of the Four Corners region belongs to semi-autonomous Native American nations, the largest of which is the Navajo Nation, followed by Hopi, Ute, and Zuni.

400px-4corner4 CORNERS REGION:  The United States acquired the four corners region from Mexico after the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848. Colorado Territory was created in 1861 and in 1863 Congress created Arizona Territory from the western part of New Mexico Territory. Gold was discovered in California just days before Mexico ceded the land to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Under the treaty, Mexico recognized the U.S. annexation of Texas, and agreed to sell California and the rest of its territory north of the Rio Grande for $15 million plus the assumption of certain damages claims.  The people of these newly created states share jurisdiction for the region along with  the Navajo Nation and Mountain Ute Tribe. Tribal nations living within the 4 Corners region  include the Hopi and other Ute. Continue reading

Profit and Power – Bubbles always burst

It used to be said that when the USA sneezes the world catches a cold. 1404442666Governments all around the world are poised, proverbial handkerchiefs in hand as China the second largest trading nation, devalues its currency. A move we are told which will affect the global economy. Why then was so little prominence given to the recent stock market crash described (by a Chinese financier) as ‘greater in its impact than the stock market crash of 1929’. The financial crash of 2008 has faded from our memory despite its legacy of unemployment, food banks, homelessness and bankruptcy. Unable to accept the reality of the failing banking system we refuse to seek alternatives and watch as nations fall prey to the ‘money as debt’ cycle. Continue reading

Global Migration – A Return

Screen shot 2015-08-02 at 18.04.47As a child of around 8 I was disturbed by a recurring vision I did not understand. I could clearly see the continent of Africa with which I was familiar from my school books, it was like viewing a map. As I watched, the map began to burn slowly, beginning at the top slightly to the left of centre then moving to the left and right where it it burned more quickly until the whole of the top section was alight. At this point the vision would fade, leaving me perplexed. Continue reading

The Karma of Genocide (1)

BORDERS AND BOUNDARIES:  The aim of colonialism is to exploit the physical, human, and economic resources of an area to benefit the colonising nation. Between the 1870s and 1900  Africa  ColonisationAfricaresisted European imperialist aggression, the attempt to colonise by foreign domination until finally Europeans  imposed their formal rule of law on African countries.. In 1884, leaders from 14 colonial powers, including the United States, Great Britain, Belgium, Portugal, Germany, Holland, Italy and Spain, held the Berlin Conference where they divided the continent of Africa into 50 countries and claimed them for themselves. No African representatives were invited. Continue reading